Hydrogen in the public debate
At home and abroad, carbon-neutral hydrogen is seen by many as a vital element in bringing about the energy transition, as well as a keystone in an affordable, sustainable and reliable energy supply. We start off this section by telling you a bit about the broad support for hydrogen in politics, society and science, support that led to advancing the development of hydrogen. The Climate Agreement – an extensive package of agreements, measures and instruments all aimed at reducing CO₂ emissions in the Netherlands by at least 49 percent in 2030 – also assumes that carbon-neutral hydrogen will play a key role in the energy transition. Consequently, the agreement identifies measures to realise that role.
However, some people are more wary when it comes to hydrogen: is it really that efficient? And is it as clean as it is proclaimed to be? We also list the common arguments against hydrogen.
The Dutch Climate Agreement (in Dutch) includes various measures to bring the emission reduction targets for 2030 more within the reach of the industrial sector, the electricity sector and transport & mobility through the use of green hydrogen. The Climate Agreement includes the aim of 500 MW electrolysis in 2025 and 3-4 GW by 2030. The Climate Agreement also points out that hydrogen can play a number of key roles in the Dutch energy system. It has therefore been agreed that a programmatic approach to hydrogen will be implemented, ultimately aimed at scaling up electrolysis.
Firstly, in 2021 the amount of extra sustainable electricity required to meet the extra demand for electricity through hydrogen and electrification needs to be determined. In addition, the programme will focus on the development of an optimum hydrogen grid. To ensure that this runs smoothly, the government is making available the financial resources for innovation and demonstration facilities, among other things.
For industry, there will be a major hydrogen programme, and active government support for hydrogen projects that are already in sight, i.e. Gasunie/Nouryon (in Dutch) (20MW Delfzijl Chemical Park), ENGIE/Gasunie (in Dutch) (100MW), Tata/Nouryon (in Dutch) (100MW), H2M Eemshaven (in Dutch) and H-vision (in Dutch) (Gasunie participation). The government also wants to investigate the possibilities for a combined tender for offshore wind energy where the green power capacity is used in the production of hydrogen.
The Dutch government has placed a higher emphasis on hydrogen in the transport & mobility sector. The Climate Agreement proposes that a far-reaching covenant be concluded in this sector in 2020 to achieve a number of ambitious goals, including having 300,000 passenger cars and 7000 trucks with a fuel cell that runs on hydrogen (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: FCEVs).
In 2018, the Netherlands appointed a special hydrogen envoy, Noé van Hulst. He explores the possible ways in which the Netherlands can connect with developments in other parts of Europe, and he shares his impressions (in Dutch).
Broad support for hydrogen
At the end of 2018, the Hydrogen Coalition argued for a concrete programme for hydrogen in the Climate Agreement: ‘Climate change is a major problem and one that requires a significant reduction in carbon emissions in various sectors. Green hydrogen will play an indispensable role in this. It’s essential that the development of green hydrogen be given a secure place in the Climate & Energy Agreement.’
In November 2019, the Dutch Waterstof Coalitie (Hydrogen Coalition) made a new appeal to the government and the Lower House of Parliament to give priority to hydrogen as an essential building block for the energy transition. They called for cooperation with the business community to ensure that at least 500 megawatts of electrolysis power are installed by 2025 in order to achieve the ambition for hydrogen in the Dutch Climate Accord. This first step in the scaling up of green hydrogen also offers sufficient prospects for the market with a view to 3-4 GW of installed capacity in 2030. This will keep the climate targets within reach.
In 2021 - just before the general election - a renewed appeal followed. Never before had hydrogen met with so much support in election programmes. The Hydrogen Coalition is therefore proposing a pact that will enable a basic hydrogen chain to be realised within one cabinet term. By 2025, the Netherlands can be among the European frontrunners when it comes to the production, transport, use and storage of hydrogen. The requested government support is matched by commitments from the business community and infrastructure providers, both strongly represented in the Hydrogen Coalition. They are ready to produce, transport and use hydrogen. The Hydrogen Coalition states that a decisive government policy will lead to a reduction in the investment costs of electrolysis of up to 65%. In addition, the coalition will strive to develop the necessary infrastructure for hydrogen and the generation of sufficient additional renewable electricity.
The Hydrogen Coalition is a group of 29 environmental organisations, knowledge institutions, government bodies and companies. This coalition, led by Greenpeace, has called on the government and the parties participating in the Climate Agreement to give priority to hydrogen as the key element in bringing about the energy transition.
Of course, this didn’t all happen spontaneously: a lot preceded this. For example, in the 1970s and at the start of this century, carbon-neutral hydrogen was a regular topic, i.e. hydrogen as a future energy source with great potential. After Jeremy Rifkin’s book The Hydrogen Economy was published in 2004, Dutch public broadcaster VPRO gave the topic of the hydrogen revolution a lot of attention that same year. The emphasis at that time was largely on hydrogen’s application as an energy carrier for fuel cell vehicles. After the initial interest, it remained relatively quiet for some time due to the many challenges this technology still had to face.
VPRO broadcast a new programme on this topic in 2019 in its documentary series Tegenlicht. The documentary Deltaplan waterstof (Delta Plan for hydrogen) asked the question: If the Netherlands stops using natural gas, can we repurpose the existing gas grid for the use of green hydrogen?
Thanks to the discussions around climate change, carbon-neutral hydrogen is back on the agenda. Important work has been done in recent years by Ad van Wijk, professor of Future Energy Systems at Delft University of Technology. He is a visionary and a leading advocate for the use of hydrogen to achieve Dutch climate targets.
The Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers (VNO-NCW) has labelled green hydrogen as ‘...an engine for growth and greening’ and has already dubbed the Netherlands ‘Hydrogen Land’. These companies and businesses want to work with the government on a sustainable and especially attractive future.
VNO-NCW’s vision for hydrogen This animation shows how VNO-NCW’s vision for hydrogen can become a reality (in Dutch).
In 2017, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate asked Top Consortium for Knowledge and Innovation New Gas (TKI New Gas) to take the lead in drawing up a roadmap for hydrogen. The Minister had seen that interest in the topic of hydrogen was growing and wanted to act on this. The publication was ready in May 2018 and concluded: ‘Hydrogen is important for being able to achieve the social challenge of drastically reducing CO2 emissions. It is a robust option that offers many possibilities for production and application, and fulfils a system role. Hydrogen can make a contribution to all transition pathways.’
On 26 June 2019, King Willem-Alexander opened Gasunie's green hydrogen plant HyStock in Veendam, Groningen. This installation marks the start of a future hydrogen chain in which green energy is converted, stored and transported to customers.
The HyStock hydrogen plant converts 1 megawatt of sustainable electricity into green hydrogen, making it the first to apply this process on a serious scale. Gasunie's objective is to store hydrogen on a large scale and economically in the near future in Gasunie's EnergyStock underground gas storage facilities. In this way, it can be used as a sustainable source of energy, even at times when solar and wind energy are not available.
Han Fennema, CEO of Gasunie: 'Hydrogen is an essential building block of the future energy supply. The HyStock hydrogen plant is the first concrete step towards working together with the entire chain, from production to use, on the necessary further upscaling of sustainable hydrogen. Towards 2030, we can make part of our existing infrastructure suitable for the transport and storage of hydrogen. In this way, the sustainable reuse of the existing gas network will contribute to keeping our energy reliable and affordable'.
Hydrogen Valley & HEAVENN
The Northern Netherlands is the first region to receive a subsidy for their so-called Hydrogen Valley. The Northern Netherlands grant application for a Hydrogen Valley has been approved by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) of the European Commission. This is a subsidy of 20 million euros with a public-private co-financing of 70 million euros. The total project size thus comes to around 90 million euros. This subsidy is intended for the development of a fully functioning green hydrogen chain in the northern Netherlands. The six-year project - called HEAVENN - will start in 2020.
Research carried out in countries and studies at European level also conclude that hydrogen is a key element in an affordable, sustainable and reliable energy supply. You will find links to a few of the key reports below.
- Hydrogen in a low-carbon economy, Committee on Climate Change, UK
- Energy Storage – A Missing Piece of the Puzzle for the Self-Sufficient Living, O. Pesonen and T. Alakunnas
- Gas for Climate – A path to 2050; published by Gas for Climate, a group of seven leading European gas transport companies (including Gasunie) and two sustainable gas industry associations
- How Hydrogen Empowers the Energy Transition, Hydrogen Council
- Industrialisierung der Wasserelektrolyse in Deutschland: Chancen und Herausforderungen für nachhaltigen Wasserstoff für Verkehr, Strom und Wärme [Industrialisation of water electrolysis in Germany: Opportunities and challenges for sustainable hydrogen for transport, electricity and heat], National Organisation Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology – NOW GmbH (in German)
- H21 Leeds City Gate, film by Northern Gas Networks
- Hydrogen, enabling a zero emission Europe, Technology Roadmaps Full Pack, September 2018
- The Future of Hydrogen: seizing today’s opportunities, report prepared by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for the G20 in Japan, June 2019
- Hydrogen from renewable power: technology outlook for the energy transition; International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) September 2018
- Hydrogen – Industry as Catalyst: accelerating the decarbonisation of our economy to 2030, World Energy Council Netherlands, 2019
- Hydrogen in the electricity value chain; DNV GL, March 2019
- IRENA, Hydrogen a Renewable Energy Perspective, 2019
- The role of hydrogen and fuel cells in the global energy system, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
- The Role of Hydrogen and Gas, Hydrogen Europe, 2019
- HyArc Hydrogen database
- The Green Hydrogen Economy in the Northern Netherlands; Noordelijke InnovatieBoard, October 2017
- Investeringsagenda waterstof Noord-Nederland [Hydrogen investment agenda for the Northern Netherlands, February 2019 (in Dutch)
- Roadmap towards a climate-neutral industry in the Delta region, CE Delft and SDR Platform, March 2018
- Rapportage systeemstudie energie-infrastructuur Noord-Holland 2020-2050 [Report on the system study of the energy grid in North Holland 2020-2050], CE Delft, ECN/TNO, Studio Marco Vermeulen, June 2019 (in Dutch)
- The Dutch Hydrogen Economy in 2050. An exploratory study on the socio-economic impact of introducing hydrogen into the energy system of the Netherlands, New Energy Coalition, March 2019.
- Topsector Energie: Programmatische aanpak waterstof
- Clingendael Energy - Van onzichtbare naar meer zichtbare hand waterstof en elektriciteit
The hydrogen debate
The fact that there is a lot of support for carbon-neutral hydrogen does not mean there are no contrary views on the matter. For decades, experts, policymakers and many others have been proclaiming hydrogen as the sustainable energy carrier of the future. However, all in all little has come of this.
The hydrogen used in industry is still not carbon-neutral, and applications in other sectors are limited in the Netherlands to a few dozen cars, buses and trucks, and soon to several dozen homes.
On the one hand, you have the classic chicken-and-egg scenario: who is going to invest in an expensive hydrogen application when there is only a limited supply of carbon-neutral hydrogen and a limited infrastructure (and when the carbon-neutral hydrogen is much more expensive than natural gas too)? On the other hand, more fundamental issues also play a role, and various questions arise: why would you convert our limited supply of sustainable electricity into hydrogen when you can put it to use directly? Isn't driving on batteries much more efficient than running vehicles on hydrogen? Won’t proper insulation be pushed into the background if hydrogen starts to heat our homes? Hydrogen isn’t really needed, is it? Batteries can still provide sufficient energy storage in the future. And isn’t hydrogen dangerous?
These are valid questions, and ones deserving of our consideration, certainly in a time when the Dutch state has committed itself to substantial emission reduction targets more than ever before. We have to be prudent in the use of our scarce sustainable resources, we need to prevent energy losses as much as possible, and we have to keep the supply of energy as safe, reliable and affordable as possible. Accordingly, we cover these questions in depth in other sections of this long read on hydrogen.